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Implementation of the ECN+ Directive ∙ Czech Republic: Missed Opportunity to Enhance Independence and Powers

Michal Petr


Keywords: Czech Republic, public enforcement, ECN+ implementation, ECN+ Directive, Directive (EU) 2019/1, fundamental rights, NCA independence, NCA resources, fines, leniency

Michal Petr is a senior researcher in EU law at Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic. For correspondence: <>.


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