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Implementation of the ECN+ Directive ∙ Malta: The Journey Towards Effective Enforcement - Where Does Malta Stand?

Sylvann Aquilina Zahra


Keywords: ECN+ Directive, Competition Act, Malta, enforcement, Office for Competition, ECN+ implementation, Directive (EU) 2019/1, fundamental rights, NCA independence, NCA resources, fines, leniency

Sylvann Aquilina Zahra, Consultant, Ganado Advocates; Visiting Senior Lecturer, University of Malta. For correspondence: <>.


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